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Links to each indicator web page are provided in the highlights section. The report begins with an introductory section with chapters on methodologies for the assessments and the forces driving change in the indices. Section 2 presents indicators relating to Farmland Management and species habitat. Section 6 discusses Applications and Future Directions for these indicators. The overall trend from to for biodiversity shows steady and consistent improvements across Canada, moving from a "Poor" status in , to a "Moderate" status in The improvements are largely due to changes in tillage practices reflected in the Soil Cover Indicator.

The index tends to aggregate and generalize trends and so should be viewed as a policy tool to give a general overview of state and trend over time.

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Considering various aspects of soil quality together, agriculture's environmental performance has a "Good" status, and has significantly improved over the year period preceding Estimates are reported in a mixture of local currencies and US dollars, depending on country. Examples of where these measures are used are not intended to be exhaustive. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS Biol. Published online Sep 9. Andrew J. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. S1 Fig: Proportion by which government policies increase gross returns to farmers as compared with the absence of government intervention. S2 Fig: Estimated numbers of near-threatened species negatively impacted by agriculture. S1 Text: Supporting Methods.

Agriculture and the environment

S1 Table: Pros and cons of measures used to mitigate conflict between agriculture and the environment. Abstract Agriculture dominates the planet. Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Financial support to farmers from taxpayers and consumers associated with agricultural policies as a proportion of the total value of agricultural production VoP at the farm gate. Fig 2. Estimated numbers of threatened species negatively impacted by agriculture. Potential Resolutions to the Agriculture—Nature Conflict Agricultural policy with explicit environmental objectives is generally organized around three approaches Table 1 and expanded upon in S1 Table ; see Box 1 for an exception : Table 1 Successes associated with different policy approaches and the local 1 obstacles to their implementation.

Approach Success story Obstacles Regulations Critical Counties programme launched in by Brazilian government suspended access to credit for farmers in counties with the highest deforestation rates. Complexity, enforceability, cost of implementation. Community-based Landcare Australia is among the best known partnerships between communities, government, and organisations.

Notable successes improving water quality, reducing soil degradation, restoring habitat [ 43 ]. CRP has eliminated millions of tonnes of GHG emissions and fertiliser additions and established new habitat supporting tens of millions of birds and other wildlife [ 47 ]. Can perform poorly if farmers paid for actions rather than actual environmental outcomes associated with their land [ 49 ]. For example, temporary retirement schemes emerged initially in EU to reduce overproduction. As no environmental outcome was explicitly targeted, farmers tended to retire least profitable land that was often the poorest quality, limiting environmental benefits [ 50 , 51 ].

Master’s programme in Agricultural, environmental and resource economics

Box 1. Abandoning the Agricultural Sector to Market Forces New Zealand radically altered its agricultural policy in to embrace minimal government intervention.

Box 2. Environmental Harms of Agricultural Price Support Price support policies, such as import tariffs or minimum commodity prices, encourage overproduction in the absence of supply management.

Agriculture and aquaculture environments

Finding the Right Mixture of Solutions Maintaining the status quo with agricultural policy is unsustainable for the environment [ 3 , 35 , 62 ]. Box 3. Fig 3. Improvements in environmental performance of agriculture correlate with investments in agri-environment schemes AES. XLSX Click here for additional data file. S1 Fig Proportion by which government policies increase gross returns to farmers as compared with the absence of government intervention. DOCX Click here for additional data file.

S2 Fig Estimated numbers of near-threatened species negatively impacted by agriculture.

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S1 Text Supporting Methods. S1 Table Pros and cons of measures used to mitigate conflict between agriculture and the environment. References 1. Nature : — Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

Agri-environment Schemes | Agriculture and Land-Use - The RSPB

Geographic distribution of global agricultural lands in the year Global Biogeochem Cycles 22 : GB Lawton JH Ecology, politics and policy. J Appl Ecol 44 : — Lambin EF, Meyfroidt P Global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity. Version Accessed March Glob Chang Biol 13 : — Accessed 14 March BioScience 53 : — Science : — Nature : — Toxic Radioact. Waste in press.

Lal R Degradation and resilience of soils. Ruhl JB Farms, their environmental harms, and environmental law. Ecol Law Q 27 : — Conserv Lett 2 : — Policy Soc 31 : — Eskridge WN Jr Politics without romance: implications of public choice theory for statutory interpretation. Va Law Rev 74 : — Food Policy 50 : 20— Grant WP Can political science contribute to agricultural policy?

Burson-Marsteller A guide to effective lobbying in Europe: the view of policy-makers. Accessed 1 June Proc Roy Soc B : — Basic and Applied Ecology 16 : 95— Results from a qualitative meta-analysis. Environment and Planning A 32 : — European Court of Auditors Is cross compliance an effective policy? Curtis A, Lockwood M Landcare and catchment management in Australia: lessons for state-sponsored community participation.

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Soc Nat Resour 13 : 61— Environ Values 7 : 59— Aust J Exp Agric 46 : — Wu J Slippage effects of the conservation reserve program. Fuel Tanks. Vehicle Recycling. Environmental Compliance. Agriculture Environmental Management. Who does this regulation apply to?

Learn more about phase-in schedules under the Code of Practice for Agricultural Environmental Management How the regulation was developed The regulation was developed in consultation with agricultural sector representatives, individual farmers and ranchers, First Nations, environmental non-governmental organizations and municipalities. Copy Cancel. Did you find what you were looking for? Thank you for your response.

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